Towards national policy for open source hardware research: The case of Finland
Citation: I.T.S. Heikkinena, H. Savina, J. Partanenb, J. Seppäläc, J.M. Pearce Towards national policy for open source hardware research: The case of Finland.
DOI (original publisher): 10.1016/j.techfore.2020.119986
Semantic Scholar (metadata): 10.1016/j.techfore.2020.119986
Sci-Hub (fulltext): 10.1016/j.techfore.2020.119986
Internet Archive Scholar (search for fulltext): Towards national policy for open source hardware research: The case of Finland
Wikidata (metadata): Q109577442
Approach of Impacts of Open Source Hardware in Science and Engineering (US) is expanded and applied to Finland.
Steps of method:
- the most-representative university in the country is selected for a detailed analysis of research equipment purchases greater than 10,000€over the past 20 years;
- the equipment is classified into four categories ((1) characterization, (2) electronics, (3) processing and (4) space improvements) and then refined to sets of instruments;
- these are compared to available FOSH;
- evaluated for future FOSH development; and
- the origin of the equipment classes are determined to investigate balance of trade impacts.
Aalto was selected as the representative university, in part due to access to procurement data: in last 20 years 49.146m€ in purchases of 625 individual items of scientific equipment costing more than 10,000€ per item, dominated (46%) by characterization (eg microscopy) equipment. The average expenditure for the last ten years was 4.3m€/year. Estimates FOSH typically costs 1-10% of proprietary tools. If all major research infrastructure in Finland were converted to FOSH, Aalto University would save between 0.43m€and 4.2m€ annually on research equipment expenditures, and Finnish science funders could save between 2.84m€and 27.7m €annually. Impacts on accelerated innovation would likely dwarf those impacts. Additionally only 34% of purchases are from Finnish companies (an overestimate due to outside sourcing/ownership), much of which could be onshored with FOSH.
Theoretical and Practical Relevance
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