Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in developing countries: The case of child survival in Sao Paolo, Brazil
Sastry explores inequalities in under-5 mortality in Sao Paolo, Brazil from 1970 to 1991 by household wealth and maternal education. Inequality in child mortality declined overall fro 1970-1991. When examined by HH wealth, it is revealed that the decline happened dur to a much larger drop in child mortality in lower income quintiles than in higher-income quintiles. By women's education, inequality in child mortality dropped from 1970 to 1980, then increased by 1991. Child mortality actually increased for women in higher educational classes and decreased for lower classes in the 1970s, perhaps due to increases in edu attainment. All educational levels experienced improvements after the 1970s. The effect of covariates reduced overtime to that mother's edu itself played a more important role in inequality by education. Covariates, including maternal edu, reduced the inequality in child mortality that otherwise would have been observed. So, decreasing maternal edu inequality as a policy initiative might, in turn, reduce child mortality. These conclusions do no support those made by Victoria et al. (2000) and Szreter (1997) which suggest that economic and technology growth increase health inequality. Inequality trends in Sao Paolo emerge from a complex system of sanitation improvements, education, and "catching up" (???) from the increased mortality of the 1960s and 1970s.