Mediating factors linking population and environment
Citation: McNicoll, G. (1994) Mediating factors linking population and environment.
Hardin-type transfers: Within a community, to the extent that behavior of one person or family generates negative external effects on others, there will often be some compensating transfer, offered or exacted, that on balance yields a rough degree of reciprocity tragedy of the commons, Prisoner's Dilemma. Interclass transfers: The relevant cost transfers are effectively unilateral that is, uncompensated rather than reciprocal, especially likely in a strongly stratified society. (Potential reciprocity exists.) Community-level externalities: Some spillovers extend across community boundaries, the spatial separation making it more likely that the transfers will be unilateral. (Potential reciprocity exists.) Intertemporal transfers: Most transfers across time are necessarily unilateral and do not admit even potential recourse by those on whom the costs are imposed.